The Old English
„structure, analysis, and interpretation“
- Table of Contents -
I.I General Introduction 2
I.II Translation 3 - 5
II Main Part:
II.I Structure and Interpretation 6 - 10
II.II Vocabulary and Textual Difficulties 11 - 13
II.III The Identity of the Main Protagonist 14 - 15
III Dénouement / Final Part:
III.I Final Conclusion 16
III.II Bibliographies 17
- I.I Introduction -
he Riming Poem“ is indisputably one of the most obscure works in Old English poetry and it receives very divergent attention from numerous scholars during the last century. This attention is both positive and negative, and reaches from the very harsh judgement as „incoherent babbling“ (W.S. Mackie) and „a lunatic exercise“ (D. Pearsall) to „the virtuosity of the music of the lines can hardly be overpraised“ (R. Lehmann). The „truth“ can probably be found in the middle of both sides.
The „Riming Poem“ appears in „The Exeter Anthology of Old English Poetry“ (MS 3501) and in genre it belongs to the group of elegies, being a mournful, melancholy poem, especially a funeral song or lament for the dead. The elegy deals with the narrator’s retrospect on his joyful past life and his miserable present state.
It is hard to define at that period of time it might have been written and where it has its origin. Because of the use of end-rhyme, we can conclude that it belongs to the late Old English period, for it is not before this time that rhyme appears (via Roman influence) in poetry at all. Also some linguistic forms may be a hint at the poem belonging to the mid
10th century and being written in the North of England. It is also hardly possible to find a source on which it might be based. It is thought to share features with the story of Job, although every educated Christian of that time knows about the story of Job and makes unconsciously use of it.
One of the features making the „Riming Poem“ so obscure is the strict use of rhyme and alliteration. It is the first poem in Old English poetry to use rhyme throughout. In order to maintain the rhyme, the writer is forced to use rare vocabulary, which make it all very difficult even for scholars to get into its meaning and to understand it.
So it is not before 1813 that the „Riming Poem“ is first brought to scholarly notice by
J.J. Conybear. He reads it under the topic of ‘Observations on the Metre of the Anglo-Saxon Poetry’ before the ‘Society of Antiquaries’ in February 1813. In 1826 his brother
W.D. Conybear titles it „The Riming Poem“, under which it is printed and since then the heading has established itself as its title. The employed dialect we used in the poem is basically West-Saxon, although a few Anglican-type forms can be found.
I.II The Riming Poem:
To me he granted life [he], who spread out this light (and drew together
that brightness), graciously of God spread out.
I was glad, rejoicing, arrayed colours, joys with colours, of the flowers
5 Men beheld me, feasts never failed, rejoiced [in their] gift of live;
horses with rich trappings carried [them]
across plains of joy courses, in joy,
with long paces of limps.
Then was fruits awaked, the world endowed with swift shoots
10 under the heaven spread out, [God’s] wise power overspread;
men went about, joined together in conversation,
continued in joy, arrayed selves with desire.
By the action of wide choice appointed ship,
whose course was on the sea, where ship deserted me not.
15 I possessed high rank, in hall I lacked nothing,
there rode the strong hearted company of men,
there man often experienced that he beheld weight of treasure in hall
useful noblemen - while I was in power
brave men praised me, saved me during war,
20 upheld me in handsome manner, defended me form enemies.
So my hope and grace was supported, surrounded comitatus,
possessed firm possessions, ruled goings.
Even thus the earth gave nourishment, I possessed high seat,
spoke words having power. Ancient peace failed not to give nourishment,
25 on the contrary the year was constant in gifts - harpstring resounding
continuing in faith and cut off the river of affliction.
Men were keen, the harp was sounding clear,
resounded loudly, sound re-echoed (the heavens rang with melody),
not greatly diminished.
30 The hall shook, splendid courageous virtue towered up
and increased, wealth was a beacon,
[for] lords wisdom came, brave things became good.
Pride gained strength, mind rejoiced,
good faith flourished, glory brought good fortune,
35 glory made glad prosperous,
gold was made ready, jewel was ever present,
treasure was deceitful, kinship brought oppression.
I was brave in war trappings, noble in array,
my joy was noble, in assured joy way of life;
40 I upheld and protected the land, I was benevolent [to] the people
for a long time my life was resting on and intensive holding
fast glory among people.
Now my heart is distressed, fearful departing of fair colour,
inescapable troubles near. What was excellent in formerly day
45 departs in the night into flight; moves now pervasively deep
in inner being burning treasure, grown in the breasts,
and fled, melted away. Evil has greatly bloomed
in thoughts, endless lamentation
attacks the nature of the heart and burns, equally dammed
50 burns eager for evil, runs about bitterly.
The far journey begins, gives birth to weary struggles,
his glory ceases, parting from joys,
parting from skills, does not go in accordance with desire.
55 So here joys fall away, nobilities collapse,
here men lose life, often take sins to themselves;
seasons is all too evil, infirm has sunk down,
throve ill mountainous in horror, and all has constantly sunk down.
So now the world changes, sends out fate
60 and hatred’s pursues, brings noble men to ruin.
The kindred of joy departs, the tear spear and slaughters,
contends evilly determined; iniquity prepares the arrow;
pledge bites distress (the brave old obstructs the success;
time of misery flourishes), anger defiles oath.
65 Persistent affliction spreads widely, the ship sails out of deceit,
grief digs lamentation, engraved power possesses.
Deceitful whiteness becomes soil, the heat of the summer turns cold,
richness of the land falls away, enmity surges up,
the strength of the earth grows old, courageous virtue becomes cold.
70 For me fate wove this and gave the deed
that I should dig my grave, and a grim grave
my flesh cannot flee. When arrow-hastening seizes the day
with inescapable grips, when night falls
which grudges me my dwelling, mocks my home here
75 the body lies dead here concerning my accuses
the grave-worm devours bodily parts and he experiences joy
and takes feast until these bones remain only.
And at last nothing except the necessary evilly lot obtained here as one’s lot.
Not is the fame fallen away. The sooner the blessed thinks about
80 the more often he undertakes penance,
keeps him off the bitter sin, thinks of the better joys,
calls of the joy of true rewards.
Here are joys in mercies in assured joys in the kingdom of heaven.
Let us now hasten, holy as like separated from sins,
85 protected and departed from all evils,
gloriously to where mankind can, in the presence of the Lord
exalted to see the true God and to rejoice in peace forever.
- II.I Structure and Interpretation -
n first consideration the poem at hand, being entitled „The Riming Poem“ can at least be divided into 2 parts .The first part consits of lines 1 - 42 and deals with the joyful past life of the narrator whereas the second part, running from lines 43 - 87, describes the persona’s miserable present condition, focuses on the instability of earthly bliss and gives an insight into his feelings and his own and the world’s decay. The reader gets to know his personal fear of the future and the reasons for his emotions. On closer reflection however, we consider this division to be far to simple.
To begin with the author reconciles in the last lines of the poem, from line 80 to the end, both preceding parts and gives a solution to the reader how to live in peace forever. We consider these last lines as a third individual part of the poem. Furthermore do we suggest to subdivide each of the three sections into smaller passages. Karl P. Wentersdorf gives a good example of how to make further divisions with which we for the most part agree.
The author opens the poem with a short religious epilogue accepting that life is a gift, given by the creator of the world. From line 3 onwards we divide the rest of the first part into three subdivisions: Lines 3 - 12 give the reader an impression of the courtly pleasures the narrator formerly enjoyed as well as an insight into the poet’s leisurely way of life. Afterwards, up to line 32, where the initial in the following line (33) also indicates that a new thought is about to come, he proceeds by giving details of his social position. The final section of this part formed by lines 34 - 42 shows the atmosphere and the success of the persona’s life.
In order to describe his life in retrospect, the speaker makes use of a specific lexemes
taken from the field of delight and glory in order to underline his feelings and memories. With the help of words like „“ meaning „glad“ or „“, „“ symbolizing joy and happiness as they can be found in the lines 3 - 4 the poet puts emphasis on the happy memories of his past life. The report of an individual persona is about to start.
The delight about being able to live and to enjoy nature and every day life can be discovered
throughout the first part as a whole. A strong parallel to nature as it is presented in lines 4, 9, and 23 for example underlines his happiness. Words like „blostma“ (blossom/ flower“), „wæstmum“ („fruitfulness“) and „gol“ („harvest“) show the protagonist’s relation to nature and his way of enjoying it. In the course of the poem the reader gets to know more about the main character.
With the information given in lines 15 - 22 the reader is able to figure out that the writer might be a person of noble birth („“ meaning „I held high rank“; „“ being translated as „ I held the high seat“;)
The fact that he possesses an army („“ signifying „brave men praised me, protected me in war“)and land of his own as well as personal followers („befeold" being equivalent to modern English „my retainers around me“) makes one draw this conclusion. His exact rank - whether he is a king or a scop for example - can only be speculated on; we are going to discuss this question in a separate chapter.
In lines 34 - 35 the narrator employs words such as „“ (good faith), „“ (glory) and „“ (glory, delight), which can be seen as further proof for him being fond of the past. The reader is even able to share the narrator’s memories and to feel how he loves to live because of the emotional connotation of the words he uses.
It appears to the reader that this good fortune which is described in the first part seems to be unshakeable. The happiness the persona is living in is presented as infinite - nothing seems to be able to destroy the momentary joy and the future could never be any different.
This idea can be proved with the help of line 26 where he shortly hits on the thought of afflictions which might come, but he directly rejects the idea only seconds later. He combines the negative connotation of the word „wilbec“, meaning „affliction“, with the verb „“ (past form, to cut off), which turns the association with something bad that might happen into the positive again (affliction is overcome/stopped!). It gets obvious for the reader that the narrator did neither ever think of the future and what it will be like nor of death, which will irrevocably catch every living being one day.
Furthermore it is notable that the writer pays only little heed to the power of God. In line 5 he is talking of the gifts of life („symbel ne alegon“) and a little further, in lines 9-10, the terms „world onspreht“ (world was awaked), „“ meaning „heaven“ and „“ symbolizing „wise power“ are employed. The use of these words surely underlines that the poet is aware of God being the creator of the surrounding he is living in. Besides it indicates the writer knows that he has to be thankful for enjoying his past life, although not thinking about it very often.
The change from the past life to the present life does not take place rapidly, but it is already hinted at in the last lines of the first part. The reader is to see that with the present the change to affliction is initiated.
The poet manages to present this reference to a change with the help of ambiguous vocabulary which can be interpreted in a positive and in a negative way. As an example lines 30, 35, and 37 can be mentioned which combine different meanings. The word „“ can either be understood as „mirth“ or as „terror“, whereas „“ may stand for „was ever present“ on the one hand or „go away“ on the other hand. „“ symbolizes a „mutability of fortune“. Last but not least the negative words „“ and „“ meaning „was deceitful“ and „brought oppression“ make a completion of the transition to a hostile view.
Before entering the sphere of his present life a final retrospect of the protagonist’s prosperity is given in lines 38-42. The writer sums up his life by pointing out its most important stages of his life once again. He lays emphasis on the social rank he possesses and the behaviour people show among each other. Community is stressed and seen as a very weighty element in the protagonist’s past life.
In contrast to the first part of the „Riming Poem“ being written in the first person point of view the personal pronoun „I“ ( lines 3, 15, 18,...) as well as the pronoun „me“ ( lines 1, 5, ...) can hardly be found in the following part. On the contrary the reader notices a reference to all men and to the world itself in line 55-69.
Here the transition of life is generalized by indicating it to be relevant for any human being. No one is able to escape the natural cause of life although it might be hard and sad.
In addition to this a change of time is also discernable. Lines 1 - 42 are noted down in the past tense, underlining his bygone days, whereas he makes use of the present tense to form the lines 43 - 87.
The second part of the poem underlines a similar tripartite structure as the first, one followed by a religious epilogue. In these two main parts one can find a striking change in the narrator’s mood, from happiness to bitterness. In lines 43 - 58 the persona describes how cruelty attacks and his people like a sudden catastrophe and how corruption is growing in people’s minds. Then he continues up to line 69 by describing the decay of the world. From lines 70 - 80 the narrator redirects the poem to his personal life, or rather his death and the digging of his own grave.
The turning point of the poem, being as well the decisive moment in his life, is introduced by the adverb of time „“ meaning „now“ in line 43. It indicates a change of time which is about to come, being in contrast to the „“ („was“), which was used before.
With the help of verbs employed in the preterite like „“ („throve ill“), „“ („sinking“; both line 58), „“ („wove“), and „“ („gave“; both line 70) the protagonist proves the present state to have its roots in the past. The turn is stressed by certain expressions as for example in line 57. „“ can be translated as „the season is an ill one“, stressing the fact that life for the poet has rapidly changed to the negative.
Furthermore the positive events he enjoyed so much, such as the „heowum“ („flowers on the field“) in line 4, are described in a negative way in the second part. The beautiful blossom turns into evil as line 47 points out, where the writer talks about „“, being translated as „evil has bloomed“. By now concentrating on his inner self, the narrator leaves the outward façade (lines 42-50).
The fact that the language the protagonist uses to describe the heavenly bliss is the same as that used to present the transitory state of earthly delight proves that affliction, malignity as well as glory are transitory themselves.
Knowing that his end is about to come, as it can be seen from line 70 onwards, the protagonist tries to cope with it. In this passage he considers his own death with its darkness and depravity. He is forced to endure his present life without having any chance to escape. As a consequence he is awaiting his fate and thinking of his bodily decay. The speaker states that true joy is eternal because in the end age and death are vanity as much as childhood and youth. The expression „Þ“, meaning „man’s good fame stands fast“, shows that a preparation for death is the key to make one´s soul survive in the end.
The last seven lines offer the reader a reconciliation of both preceding parts and a short religious epilogue. The poet completes his circle-structure by picking up the theme having been predicated in the first line once again. His thesis that God is the power who creates the transitory world is shown once more in the end where the protagonist aims at entering the eternal heavenly world.
As a conclusion of our interpretation one is able to note down that earthly life is presented as transitory and can be seen as a preparation for death as well as for the following entry into a higher sphere - heavenly bliss, a pursuit from the joyful life on earth.
In contrast to the final rather hideous passage the poem ends on a positive note asking for self-discipline in this world in order to prepare for the lasting bliss of what is about to come. Life is given as a loan and present and has to be paid back in the end.
Apart from the thematical structure it is necessary to divide the poem with regard to it’s metrical form. As we mentioned before the author of the poem uses alliterating verses with end-rhyme throughout, which was most unusual in Old English poetry, where rhyme was merely used as an occasional feature. End-rhyme means that every second half-line rhymes with the preceding half-line and in the case of the „Riming Poem“, the writer managed to use the same rhyme in both half lines in 60 of all 87 lines. Each of these verses contain four syllables which are notably similar in pattern and basically of a trochaic metre (- / , stressed, unstressed).
In Old English poetry end-rhyme is usually used to lay more weight on particular passages. This, however, involves the risk „that by intensifying everything you intensify nothing“ as O.D. Macrae-Gibson points out. According to him this does not apply to the „Riming Poem“ for it is a relatively short one and the poet varies the „metrical intensity“ (page 5).
We will show now which techniques the poet makes use of to prevent the poem with its
end-rhyme from getting unstressed and tedious.
The poem is opened in a couplet structure, meaning that two succeeding lines of verse are rhyming with one another, usually in the same metre. In lines 13 - 16 the rhyming of that couplet structure is even increased in a tirade, a torrent of words with the ideas of duty, honour and patriotism, which is commonly very long-winded. In this case the running rhyme is even made within the half-lines, as in line 13. In lines 28-37 the poet varies the forming of a tirade by continuing the past tense singular ending through all ten lines, and with the main rhyming syllable repeated in the last pair. From lines 51-54 he again finds another way to create a climax, this time by repeating „“ („parts from“), and leading to the alliteration in line 54. The most intensively rhymed tirade can be found in lines 61 - 66, maintaining regular rhyme even in the half-lines between 62-66, but the poet does not overdo, but eases the intensity of his words when coming to the world’s decay in its old age.
- II.II Vocabulary and Textual Difficulties -
n account of his strict use of rhyme and alliteration throughout, the writer is forced to employ a number of rare or even nonce-words, occurring nowhere else in Old English poetry and creating a major difficulty for modern readers of the poem, with regard to understanding the meaning behind the poet’s sophisticated play on words. We will now try to bring some light to the most problematic words. In line 13 we come across one of the otherwise unrecorded nouns, „“. The translation of this term is controversial, but K. P. Wentersdorf presents a reasonable sounding explanation to solve this problem, assuming that the protagonist is a king or somebody in a similar position. In line 14 „“, meaning „ocean“, is employed and in the preceding line we find the third person preterite form of „“ („glad“), indicating a ship’s movement at sea. On this grounds it is suggested that „“ signifies a ship navigating on the ocean, although Lehmann objects „that now suddenly a ship appears when we thought we were in a flower-covered land with galloping horses“ (in K. P. Wentersdorf, page. ). According to us this jump from one idea to another is to be put down to the author’s search to find convenient images illustrating his senses for his past life.
A further stylistic element employed by the poet is to form nouns from other parts of speech as for example „“ in line 44. This is again unrecorded elsewhere as a noun, but it is evidently cognate with Old Norse „“, being translated as „flight“, and this meaning was simply taken over into the „Riming Poem“.
Moreover the poet forms verbs from nouns like „“ in line 9. Holthausen refers this word to „“ , assuming that it has an underlying form „“ („shoot up“). Old Norse „“ („lively“) might be cognate as well, regarding that the basic sense includes swiftness of movement or growth. A last original curiosity proving the writer’s skills is that he makes transitive verbs intransitive as „“ („was at hand“) in line 36 underlines.
Another semantic difficulty is presented by the compound „“ in line 46, which has been heavily discussed by numerous scholars.
text: lines 45b - 47a
O. D. Macrae-Gibson translates „“ as „burning treasure“, Bosworth-Toller as „ardent treasure“ and in Hall-Meritt´s article we find „a treasure exciting ardent desires“.
The „“ is defined as being „“ („grown in the breasts and fled, melted away“) which indicates that it designates something internal.
„“ can be translated as „fire“ and „“ might mean „something hidden“, accordingly „“ might denote a painful internal illness“, as Wentersdorf proposes (page 285).
Mackie suggests it might be „a burning secret disease“ (Wentersdorf, page 285), which can also be meant metaphorically in the sense of a moral weakness attacking men’s soul and burning like a fire. According to J. E. Cross the persona suffers from a disease described as „the mortal sin of avarice and cupidity“ (Cross in Wentersdorf, page 286). We advocate this opinion, thinking of greed and covetousness falling onto men’s soul in form of an illness and to our minds the poet uses „“ as an image to describe this process.
Before we are able to close the chapter on textual and semantical difficulties we need to consider the passages of the poem showing a breakdown in the rhyming pattern. These might either be due to a scribe’s omission, or to textual transmission, meaning that the Anglo-Saxon form of a word has been replaced by a West-Saxon spelling. The passages where text is supposingly missing are called lacunae.
The first one we will consider can be found between lines 34 - 37.
The otherwise regular and strict rhyme as well as the metre give an indication of line 35b to be missing and Ettmüller and Holthausen propose to emend this lacuna by supplementing
„“ („beauty shone“), whereas Lehmann offers „bliÞs“ („joy showed the way“) as another possibility. Macrae-Gibson however, adds in his translation „and the delight was sweet“, referring to „“ (line 35) as bliss.
We think it is not necessary to take side with one of these possibilities, for they are conclusive in the individual translations and interpretations. While this lacuna is based on the scribe’s omission slipping from the ending-ade in one line to the succeeding line; this might not apply for the next breakdown in the rhyme-scheme in line 77.
oÞ ÞÞ Þ
Although it is obvious that line 77 is lacking some words between „Þ“ and „“, it is hard to decide whether this is also due to the scribe’s omission or to a deliberate and dramatic departure from regular rhyme by the poet. O. D. Macrae-Gibson simply states that in this case the poet did not succeed in maintaining the metrical form. Grein and Holthausen however, try to emend the passage by attaching „ÞÞÞ Þ“ („until the bones have completely crumbled“), conferring to the worm’s feast of the bones. This idea was taken up again by K. P. Wentersdorf, who opposes that „the worm’s feast does not last until the bones decay: the feast on the flesh is soon finished, but the crumbling of the bones takes much longer“. He arrives at the conclusion that it must be read the way already mentioned above. He proposes to render the passage:“ when the corpse lies [at rest] the worm shall seek out the limbs, for it derives pleasure as it partakes of the feast until the bones [have been completely stripped], and in the end there is nothing... .“ (Wentersdorf, page 275).
It not necessarily indicates a breakdown in the rhyming pattern or the lack of a word ending a lacuna, as the absence of rhyme in line 75 can be improved by substituting „Þ“ to „Þ“. „Þ“ („the worm devours“) was a common idea in Old and Middle English poetry when referring to the grave and might be exchanged by the scribe for the rather obscure picture „Þ“ („the worm investigates“).
- II.III The Identity of the Main Protagonist -
o decide whether the protagonist of the „Riming Poem“ is a scop or a king is very difficult. Nevertheless we will try to convey our view by discussing the various current opinions.
During the last century the idea arose that the main character of the poem might be a ruler who has fallen on evil times, but since then it has not found wide acceptance. Although the speaker tells about people supporting him, he represents not the typical example of a warrior in this time. He describes his followers in line 19b („“, meaning „ saved me during war“), but we cannot find any signs of „glorious victories or of insidious external enemies“ in the poem as K. P. Wentersdorf states on page 268. The only hint we are able to notice of the persona being a warrior is in line 38b („“, „noble in war equipment“). In Old English times not every ruler was necessarily cruel in warfare, as for example , son of King Egbert of Wessex. He is said to be „a religious and unambitious man for whom engagement in war and politics was an unwelcome consequence of rank“ (Stenton in Wentersdorf, page 269). Wentersdorf compares these two biographies with justification as we think. Another example of an unaggressive and pious ruler is Edward the Confessor, whose main interest is in religion instead of war. As we mentioned before, we get a more obvious information of the narrator’s rank, who is a person of noble birth, holding high rank and high seat, in lines 15-22. Wentersdorf takes the final opinion that the narrator „is a ruler who has been forced into retirement because he has more religious devotion than political ability“ (A. L. Klinck, page 41).
Line 71a might be a further indication of the persona’s rank, where the text says:
„Þ“ („and I should dig a grave“). This passage is again a hard one to decide how to interpret the digging of a grave, because it was not usual even in Anglo-Saxon times to dig a grave for oneself. So according to Lehmann this statement might be understood as him arranging a place for his burial. Wentersdorf indicates that people of higher rank and influence were the only ones making arrangements for their own funeral.
To our minds these arguments are convincing enough to weaken N. D. Isaac’s theory of the speaker being a scop who tells in the poem about the writing of poetry, which we do not think is justified. He bases this idea on the passage where harp-playing is mentioned (l. 27-31) and translates line 40 as „... I sang to my people“, whereas Macrae-Gibson translates it as „I gave grace to my people“.
Though we have to admit that Bosworth-Toller gives the translation „to sing“ for „leoÞian“. Nevertheless do we hold the view that the narrator of the „Riming Poem“ must have been a former chieftain or king, who fell on evil times and in former days of his life sang to his people, protected them and was protected by his followers.
- III.I Final Conclusion -
fter having given an insight into the structure, content and special difficulties of the „Riming Poem“ we would like to sum up the most important points, of what hsas been shown before. As we have illustrated the poem at hand can be interpreted and analyzed in many possible ways, one not necessarily excluding the other. To stress this thesis one is able to note down that articles, composed by authors like Wentersdorf, Mackie and Holthausen for example certainly show a personal method of how to deal with the poem as well as differences concerning the understanding of certain passages, but nevertheless outstanding similarities in structure and interpretation of all these articles can not be denied.
Although the use of unrecorded and ambiguous words present a great difficulty when trying to find a Modern English equivalent, we hold the view that a real misinterpretation can not be possible for the poem is clearly structured according to the pattern past and present or rather future life. Therefore the reader can easily find out the main topic the narrator is talking about. The poet’s skill to present these two antagonistic parts as a whole is shown in his ability to hint at the second section already at the end of the previous section. This hidden transition is realized with the help of ambiguity and this is, in our view, a proof of the narrator’s writing talent. Furthermore we consider his strict rhyme-scheme toserve as a good example that he aimed at making the poem understandable in an uncomplicated way as if he uses different types of rhyme. Furthermore we think that his play on words, which brings his ideas in line with the rhyme, is absolutely amazing.
According to us the problematic and arduous passages of the poem are the obvious lacuna, which need to be filled with sense in order to combine the separate parts of the verses in a proper way. Besides the discussion of the poet’s rank, is a rather involved theme being picked up and stressed in the course of the poem. These above mentioned awkwardnesses are a challenge to any reader’s mind and thinking ability. To put it in a nutshell we would like to underline that the „Riming Poem“ is a pretentious and well-structured piece of Anglo-Saxon poetry, dealing with a serious topic which any human being will receive, in a personal way, in his later life.
- III.II Bibliographies -
1.) O.D. Macrae-Gibson, „Old English Riming Poem“,
2.) Anne L. Klinck, „The Riming Poem: Design and Interpretation“,
Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 99, 1988, p. 266-279;
„The Riming Poem“, aus The Old English Elegies
Mc Gill-Queen´s University Press 1992, p. 40-43
3.) Margaret E. Goldsmith, „Corroding Treasure: A Note on the Old English
Riming Poem“, aus Notes and Queries,
May 1967, p.
4.) Anne L. Klinck „Growth and Decay in the Riming Poem“,
aus English Language Notes, Volume XXIII,
March 1986, Number 3, p. 1-3
5.) W.S. Mackie „The Old English Rhymed Poem“,
aus Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XXI,
1922, p. 507-519
6.) O.D. Macrae-Gibson „ The Literary Structure of the Riming Poem“,
aus Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, Volume LXXIV,
1973, p. 62 - 84
7.) D.R. Howlett „ The Structure of the Riming Poem“,
aus Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, Volume LXXIX,
1978, p. 330-332
8.) Karl P. Wentersdorf „The Old English Rhyming Poem: A Ruler’s Lament“,
aus Studies in Philology, No. 3, Volume LXXXII,